Sullivan, J. (2023). Empathy in Kentucky high school students. The Young Researcher, 7(1), 228-249. http://www.theyoungresearcher.com/papers/sullivan.pdf
The single-ballot plurality voting system has remained the standard in the United States dating back to the 18th century. However, the nature of plurality rule has recently been contested by alternatives. While scholars have considered the impact non-plurality voting systems could
have on election outcomes, a gap in knowledge remains pertaining to how these systems will affect partisan vote distribution in multi-party elections. This study utilizes a survey approach modeled after the ballots used in Pennsylvania’s 2022 Senate election in order to determine how voter support for each candidate may change as a result of non-plurality voting methods being used. The findings of this research suggest that although it is subjective to each system, alternative voting in general tends to increase voter support for third-party candidates in comparison to plurality, with anti-plurality voting in particular displaying a significant decrease in third-party support in skewed elections. Additionally, ranked-choice voting was found to be the most popular form of voting among participants, indicating a general sense of dissatisfaction with the standard plurality system. These findings suggest that the implementation of non-plurality voting methods may be used to better represent voter preferences and decrease polarization in U.S. elections.
Keywords: Alternative voting · Plurality · Third party · Pennsylvania · Voting methods